Factors associated with the development of opportunistic infections in HIV-1-infected adults with high CD4+ cell counts: A EuroSIDA study

Daria Podlekareva, Amanda Mocroft, Ulrik B. Dragsted, Bruno Ledergerber, Marek Beniowski, Adriano Lazzarin, Jonathan Weber, Nathan Clumeck, Norbert Vetter, Andrew Phillips, Jens D. Lundgren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background. Limited data exist on factors predicting the development of opportunistic infections (OIs) at higher-than-expected CD4+ cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected adults. Methods, Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to determine factors related to the development of groups of OIs above their respective traditional upper CD4+ cell count thresholds: group 1 (≥ 100 cells/μL), OIs caused by cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium avium complex, and Toxoplasma gondii; group 2 (≥ 200 cells/μL), Pneumocystis pneumonia and esophageal candidiasis; and group 3 (≥ 300 cells/μL), pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Results. In groups 1, 2, and 3, 71 of 9219, 125 of 7934, and 36 of 7838 patients, respectively, developed 5≥1 intragroup OI. The strongest predictor of an OI in groups 1 and 2 was current CD4+ cell count (for group 1, incidence rate ratio [IRR] per 50% lower CD4+ cell count, 5.37 [95% confidence interval {CI} 3.71-7.77]; for group 2, 4.28 [95% CI, 2.98-6.14]). Injection drug use but not current CD4+ cell count predicted risk in group 3. Use of antiretroviral treatment was associated with a lower incidence of OIs in all groups, likely by reducing HIV-1 RNA levels (IRR per 1-log 10 copies/mL higher HIV-1 RNA levels for group 1, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.15-1.95]; for group 2, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.40-2.02]; and for group 3, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.40-2.54]). Conclusion. Although the absolute incidence is low, the current CD4+ cell count and HIV-1 RNA level are strong predictors of most OIs in patients with high CD4+ cell counts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)633-641
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Immunology

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