OBJECTIVE - Leptin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. In vitro studies suggested that these effects may be mediated via overproduction of monocyte chemoattracting protein (MCP)-1/CCL2, which is a chemokine involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In this study, fasting plasma leptin, soluble TNF-α receptor 2 (TNF-α-R2), and MCP-1/CCL2 concentrations were measured in 207 middle-aged women (age 61 ± 12 years, BMI 30.1 ± 6.6 kg/m2), including 53 patients with type 2 diabetes, 42 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 112 with normal glucose tolerance, to assess cross-sectionally their relationship with markers of atherosclerosis and, longitudinally over 7 years, whether their circulating levels were associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. RESULTS - At baseline, leptin and TNF-α-R2 were not different among groups; meanwhile, MCP-1/CCL2 was increased in type 2 diabetes (P <0.05). All showed significant associations with biochemical risk markers of atherosclerosis. In a univariate analysis, age, fasting insulin, leptin, and MCP-1/CCL2 were associated with CVD mortality at 7 years. When a multivariate analysis was performed, only age, leptin, and insulin retained an independent association with CVD mortality, with leptin showing a protective effect (hazard ratio 0.88; P <0.02). CONCLUSIONS - In middle-aged women, MCP-1/CCL2, leptin, and TNF-α-R2 were all related to biochemical risk markers of atherosclerosis. MCP-1/CCL2 concentration was the only one to be increased in type 2 diabetes with respect to nondiabetic women and the only one to be associated with increased risk of CVD mortality after a 7-year follow-up period in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, neither MCP-1/CCL2 nor TNF-α-R2 was associated with CVD mortality, and inspection of the data showed that leptin, in both the univariate and multivariate analysis, was associated with a protective effect.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism