FDG PET/CT for assessing tumour response to immunotherapy: Report on the EANM symposium on immune modulation and recent review of the literature

Nicolas Aide, Rodney J. Hicks, Christophe Le Tourneau, Stéphanie Lheureux, Stefano Fanti, Egesta Lopci

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


This paper follows the immunotherapy symposium held during the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) 2017 Annual Congress. The biological basis of the immune checkpoint inhibitors and the drugs most frequently used for the treatment of solid tumours are reviewed. The issues of pseudoprogression (frequency, timeline), hyperprogression and immune-related side effects are discussed, as well as their implications for patient management. A review of the recent literature on the use of FDG PET for assessment of immunotherapy is presented, and recommendations are provided for assessing tumour response and reporting immune-related side effects with FDG PET based on published data and experts’ experience. Representative clinical cases are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)238-250
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019



  • Hyperprogression
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • Immune-related side effects
  • Immunotherapy
  • Pseudoprogression
  • Therapy response

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this