PURPOSE:: Pigmentary alterations along the presumed edge of staphyloma in wide-field fundus images have been reported to be highly correlated with the eye shape in three-dimensional magnetic resonance images. The purpose of this study was to analyze Optos images in a large series of highly myopic patients to determine the prevalence, types, and features of staphylomas. METHODS:: One thousand and sixty eyes of 541 patients with high myopia (axial length ≥ 26.5 mm) in at least one eye were retrospectively analyzed in Japan and Spain. To determine the presence and types of staphyloma, the authors focused on pigmentary abnormalities along the presumed edge of staphylomas with at least one positive finding in fundus images, autofluorescent images, and infrared images by Optos. RESULTS:: Posterior staphyloma was detected in 552 of 1,060 eyes (55%) in Optos images. Wide macular type was the most common (79%), followed by narrow macular (15%), then peripapillary (3%), inferior, and finally nasal. In the 60 non-highly myopic eyes of patients with unilateral high myopia, staphyloma was detected in 40%, suggesting that unilateral high myopia might be a bilateral disorder with marked differences in the degree of staphyloma between the two eyes. Combined staphylomas such as the peripapillary type within the wide macular type were also found. CONCLUSION:: Posterior staphyloma was found in 55% of 1,060 eyes with bilateral or unilateral pathologic myopia. Wide macular was the most common type, although there were much more variations in the shape of staphylomas than that had been previously believed.
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