Sexual dysfunction in women is defined as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and/or sexual pain, which result in significant personal distress and may have a negative effect on a woman’s health and an impact on the quality of life. A comprehensive understanding of the anatomical, neurobiological, and psychological mechanisms behind women’s sexual function and dysfunction is of paramount importance. We sought to review the most frequent clinical pathophysiological mechanisms of women’s desire, arousal, and orgasmic dysfunctions. Likewise, we tried to consider the different disorders from the point of view of the daily clinical practice, trying to give an updated vision of lines of therapy currently being studied or of clear application, especially considering the disorders of sexual desire and arousal.
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