Fetal monitoring indications for delivery and 2-year outcome in 310 infants with fetal growth restriction delivered before 32 weeks' gestation in the TRUFFLE study

TRUFFLE group investigators, Gianpaolo Maso, Aldo Skabar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In the TRUFFLE (Trial of Randomized Umbilical and Fetal Flow in Europe) study on the outcome of early fetal growth restriction, women were allocated to one of three groups of indication for delivery according to the following monitoring strategies: (1) reduced fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) on cardiotocography (CTG); (2) early changes in fetal ductus venosus (DV) waveform (DV-p95); and (3) late changes in fetal DV waveform (DV-no-A). However, many infants per monitoring protocol were delivered because of safety-net criteria, for maternal or other fetal indications, or after 32 weeks of gestation when the protocol was no longer applied. The objective of the present posthoc subanalysis was to investigate the indications for delivery in relation to 2-year outcome in infants delivered before 32 weeks to further refine management proposals.

METHODS: We included all 310 cases of the TRUFFLE study with known outcome at 2 years' corrected age and seven fetal deaths, excluding seven cases with inevitable perinatal death. Data were analyzed according to the allocated fetal monitoring strategy in combination with the indication for delivery.

RESULTS: Overall, only 32% of liveborn infants were delivered according to the specified monitoring parameter for indication for delivery; 38% were delivered because of safety-net criteria, 15% for other fetal reasons and 15% for maternal reasons. In the CTG-STV group, 51% of infants were delivered because of reduced STV. In the DV-p95 group, 34% of infants were delivered because of abnormal DV and, in the DV-no-A group, only 10% of infants were delivered accordingly. The majority of infants in the DV groups were delivered for the safety-net criterion of spontaneous decelerations in FHR. Two-year intact survival was highest in the DV groups combined compared with the CTG-STV group (P = 0.05 for live births only, P = 0.21 including fetal death), with no difference between DV groups. A poorer outcome in the CTG-STV group was restricted to infants delivered because of FHR decelerations in the safety-net subgroup. Infants delivered because of maternal reasons had the highest birth weight and a non-significantly higher intact survival.

CONCLUSIONS: In this subanalysis of infants delivered before 32 weeks, the majority were delivered for reasons other than the allocated monitoring strategy indication. Since, in the DV group, CTG-STV criteria were used as a safety net but in the CTG-STV group, no DV safety-net criteria were applied, we speculate that the slightly poorer outcome in the CTG-STV group might be explained by the absence of DV data. The optimal timing of delivery of fetuses with early intrauterine growth restriction may therefore be best determined by monitoring them longitudinally, with both DV and CTG monitoring. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)347-352
Number of pages6
JournalUltrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume50
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2017

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Fetal Monitoring
Umbilicus
Cardiotocography
Fetal Development
Pregnancy
Safety
Fetal Heart Rate
Fetal Death
Deceleration
Mothers
Live Birth
Nuclear Family
Birth Weight
Fetus
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

Cite this

@article{9580a72bf7eb4794ab78a5931cc7bf92,
title = "Fetal monitoring indications for delivery and 2-year outcome in 310 infants with fetal growth restriction delivered before 32 weeks' gestation in the TRUFFLE study",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: In the TRUFFLE (Trial of Randomized Umbilical and Fetal Flow in Europe) study on the outcome of early fetal growth restriction, women were allocated to one of three groups of indication for delivery according to the following monitoring strategies: (1) reduced fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) on cardiotocography (CTG); (2) early changes in fetal ductus venosus (DV) waveform (DV-p95); and (3) late changes in fetal DV waveform (DV-no-A). However, many infants per monitoring protocol were delivered because of safety-net criteria, for maternal or other fetal indications, or after 32 weeks of gestation when the protocol was no longer applied. The objective of the present posthoc subanalysis was to investigate the indications for delivery in relation to 2-year outcome in infants delivered before 32 weeks to further refine management proposals.METHODS: We included all 310 cases of the TRUFFLE study with known outcome at 2 years' corrected age and seven fetal deaths, excluding seven cases with inevitable perinatal death. Data were analyzed according to the allocated fetal monitoring strategy in combination with the indication for delivery.RESULTS: Overall, only 32{\%} of liveborn infants were delivered according to the specified monitoring parameter for indication for delivery; 38{\%} were delivered because of safety-net criteria, 15{\%} for other fetal reasons and 15{\%} for maternal reasons. In the CTG-STV group, 51{\%} of infants were delivered because of reduced STV. In the DV-p95 group, 34{\%} of infants were delivered because of abnormal DV and, in the DV-no-A group, only 10{\%} of infants were delivered accordingly. The majority of infants in the DV groups were delivered for the safety-net criterion of spontaneous decelerations in FHR. Two-year intact survival was highest in the DV groups combined compared with the CTG-STV group (P = 0.05 for live births only, P = 0.21 including fetal death), with no difference between DV groups. A poorer outcome in the CTG-STV group was restricted to infants delivered because of FHR decelerations in the safety-net subgroup. Infants delivered because of maternal reasons had the highest birth weight and a non-significantly higher intact survival.CONCLUSIONS: In this subanalysis of infants delivered before 32 weeks, the majority were delivered for reasons other than the allocated monitoring strategy indication. Since, in the DV group, CTG-STV criteria were used as a safety net but in the CTG-STV group, no DV safety-net criteria were applied, we speculate that the slightly poorer outcome in the CTG-STV group might be explained by the absence of DV data. The optimal timing of delivery of fetuses with early intrauterine growth restriction may therefore be best determined by monitoring them longitudinally, with both DV and CTG monitoring. Copyright {\circledC} 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.",
author = "{TRUFFLE group investigators} and Visser, {G H A} and Bilardo, {C M} and Derks, {J B} and E Ferrazzi and N Fratelli and T Frusca and W Ganzevoort and Lees, {C C} and R Napolitano and T Todros and H Wolf and K Hecher and Gianpaolo Maso and Aldo Skabar",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.",
year = "2017",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1002/uog.17361",
language = "English",
volume = "50",
pages = "347--352",
journal = "Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology",
issn = "0960-7692",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Ltd",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fetal monitoring indications for delivery and 2-year outcome in 310 infants with fetal growth restriction delivered before 32 weeks' gestation in the TRUFFLE study

AU - TRUFFLE group investigators

AU - Visser, G H A

AU - Bilardo, C M

AU - Derks, J B

AU - Ferrazzi, E

AU - Fratelli, N

AU - Frusca, T

AU - Ganzevoort, W

AU - Lees, C C

AU - Napolitano, R

AU - Todros, T

AU - Wolf, H

AU - Hecher, K

AU - Maso, Gianpaolo

AU - Skabar, Aldo

N1 - Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

PY - 2017/9

Y1 - 2017/9

N2 - OBJECTIVE: In the TRUFFLE (Trial of Randomized Umbilical and Fetal Flow in Europe) study on the outcome of early fetal growth restriction, women were allocated to one of three groups of indication for delivery according to the following monitoring strategies: (1) reduced fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) on cardiotocography (CTG); (2) early changes in fetal ductus venosus (DV) waveform (DV-p95); and (3) late changes in fetal DV waveform (DV-no-A). However, many infants per monitoring protocol were delivered because of safety-net criteria, for maternal or other fetal indications, or after 32 weeks of gestation when the protocol was no longer applied. The objective of the present posthoc subanalysis was to investigate the indications for delivery in relation to 2-year outcome in infants delivered before 32 weeks to further refine management proposals.METHODS: We included all 310 cases of the TRUFFLE study with known outcome at 2 years' corrected age and seven fetal deaths, excluding seven cases with inevitable perinatal death. Data were analyzed according to the allocated fetal monitoring strategy in combination with the indication for delivery.RESULTS: Overall, only 32% of liveborn infants were delivered according to the specified monitoring parameter for indication for delivery; 38% were delivered because of safety-net criteria, 15% for other fetal reasons and 15% for maternal reasons. In the CTG-STV group, 51% of infants were delivered because of reduced STV. In the DV-p95 group, 34% of infants were delivered because of abnormal DV and, in the DV-no-A group, only 10% of infants were delivered accordingly. The majority of infants in the DV groups were delivered for the safety-net criterion of spontaneous decelerations in FHR. Two-year intact survival was highest in the DV groups combined compared with the CTG-STV group (P = 0.05 for live births only, P = 0.21 including fetal death), with no difference between DV groups. A poorer outcome in the CTG-STV group was restricted to infants delivered because of FHR decelerations in the safety-net subgroup. Infants delivered because of maternal reasons had the highest birth weight and a non-significantly higher intact survival.CONCLUSIONS: In this subanalysis of infants delivered before 32 weeks, the majority were delivered for reasons other than the allocated monitoring strategy indication. Since, in the DV group, CTG-STV criteria were used as a safety net but in the CTG-STV group, no DV safety-net criteria were applied, we speculate that the slightly poorer outcome in the CTG-STV group might be explained by the absence of DV data. The optimal timing of delivery of fetuses with early intrauterine growth restriction may therefore be best determined by monitoring them longitudinally, with both DV and CTG monitoring. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

AB - OBJECTIVE: In the TRUFFLE (Trial of Randomized Umbilical and Fetal Flow in Europe) study on the outcome of early fetal growth restriction, women were allocated to one of three groups of indication for delivery according to the following monitoring strategies: (1) reduced fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) on cardiotocography (CTG); (2) early changes in fetal ductus venosus (DV) waveform (DV-p95); and (3) late changes in fetal DV waveform (DV-no-A). However, many infants per monitoring protocol were delivered because of safety-net criteria, for maternal or other fetal indications, or after 32 weeks of gestation when the protocol was no longer applied. The objective of the present posthoc subanalysis was to investigate the indications for delivery in relation to 2-year outcome in infants delivered before 32 weeks to further refine management proposals.METHODS: We included all 310 cases of the TRUFFLE study with known outcome at 2 years' corrected age and seven fetal deaths, excluding seven cases with inevitable perinatal death. Data were analyzed according to the allocated fetal monitoring strategy in combination with the indication for delivery.RESULTS: Overall, only 32% of liveborn infants were delivered according to the specified monitoring parameter for indication for delivery; 38% were delivered because of safety-net criteria, 15% for other fetal reasons and 15% for maternal reasons. In the CTG-STV group, 51% of infants were delivered because of reduced STV. In the DV-p95 group, 34% of infants were delivered because of abnormal DV and, in the DV-no-A group, only 10% of infants were delivered accordingly. The majority of infants in the DV groups were delivered for the safety-net criterion of spontaneous decelerations in FHR. Two-year intact survival was highest in the DV groups combined compared with the CTG-STV group (P = 0.05 for live births only, P = 0.21 including fetal death), with no difference between DV groups. A poorer outcome in the CTG-STV group was restricted to infants delivered because of FHR decelerations in the safety-net subgroup. Infants delivered because of maternal reasons had the highest birth weight and a non-significantly higher intact survival.CONCLUSIONS: In this subanalysis of infants delivered before 32 weeks, the majority were delivered for reasons other than the allocated monitoring strategy indication. Since, in the DV group, CTG-STV criteria were used as a safety net but in the CTG-STV group, no DV safety-net criteria were applied, we speculate that the slightly poorer outcome in the CTG-STV group might be explained by the absence of DV data. The optimal timing of delivery of fetuses with early intrauterine growth restriction may therefore be best determined by monitoring them longitudinally, with both DV and CTG monitoring. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

U2 - 10.1002/uog.17361

DO - 10.1002/uog.17361

M3 - Article

VL - 50

SP - 347

EP - 352

JO - Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

JF - Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

SN - 0960-7692

IS - 3

ER -