Fetal Toxicity of Immunosuppressive Drugs in Pregnancy

Claudio Ponticelli, Gabriella Moroni

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Women affected by autoimmune diseases, organ transplantation, or neoplasia need to continue immunosuppressive treatment during pregnancy. In this setting, not only a careful planning of pregnancy, but also the choice of drugs is critical to preventing maternal complications and minimizing the fetal risks. Some immunosuppressive drugs are teratogenic and should be replaced even before the pregnancy, while other drugs need to be managed with caution to prevent fetal risks, including miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity, and low birth weight. In particular, the increasing use of biologic agents raises the question of their compatibility with reproduction. In this review we present data on the indication and safety in pregnancy of the most frequently used immunosuppressive drugs.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 15 2018


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