Fid score: An effective tool in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia-related epistaxis

Fabio Pagella, Eugenia Maiorano, Elina Matti, Carmine Tinelli, Annalisa De Silvestri, Sara Ugolini, Roberta Lizzio, Carla Oliveri, Alessandro Pusateri, Giuseppe Spinozzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare disease characterized by a multisystemic vascular dysplasia and epistaxis, that is the most common cause of disability and social impairment. Patient management strictly depends on the severity of this symptom; therefore, it is of paramount importance for the clinicians to effectively grade epistaxis severity. The aim of this report was to validate the Frequency, Intensity and Duration score (FID) for grading epistaxis severity in patients with HHT; we studied repeatability and external validity comparing FID score with Epistaxis Severity Score (ESS). Methods: This is a descriptive, observational study that included 264 adult HHT patients with epistaxis. Diagnosis of HHT was established with Curaçao criteria or positivity at genetic testing. Nosebleed severity was evaluated according to the FID score and the ESS. The first 30 patients were included in the validation of the FID score, which was graded on days 0, 1, 3 and 7. In the remaining 234 patients, a comparison between the ESS and FID score was performed. Results: The statistical analysis performed in order to validate the FID score showed very good agreement between scores calculated on different days; analysis comparing the FID score with the ESS revealed a high correlation between the two grading systems. Conclusions: The FID score is a quick, easy and precise tool for evaluating HHT-related epistaxis and could be a possible alternative to the ESS. The FID score meets the need for an intuitive and smart grading system that is easy to manage in clinicians’ hands.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2020


  • Epistaxis
  • Epistaxis severity
  • Grading score
  • Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia HHT
  • Rendu-Osler-Weber

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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