Purpose: Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) has poor prognosis with failures in contralateral testis, CNS, and extranodal sites. To prevent these events, we designed an international phase II trial (International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group 10 [IELSG-10]) that addressed feasibility and activity of conventional chemoimmunotherapy associated with CNS prophylaxis and contralateral testis irradiation. The trial was conducted by the IELSG and the Italian Lymphoma Foundation. Patients and Methods: Fifty-three patients (age 22 to 79 years) with untreated stage I or II PTL were treated with six to eight courses of rituximab added to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) every 21 days (R-CHOP21); four doses of intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX) and radiotherapy (RT) to the contralateral testis (30 Gy) for all patients and to regional lymph nodes (30 to 36 Gy) for stage II disease. Results: All patients received R-CHOP21, 50 received CNS prophylaxis, and 47 received testicular RT. With a median follow-up of 65 months, 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 74% (95% CI, 59% to 84%) and 85% (95% CI, 71% to 92%), respectively. Ten patients relapsed or progressed: two in lymph nodes, five in extranodal organs, and three in the CNS. The 5-year cumulative incidence of CNS relapse was 6% (95% CI, 0% to 12%). No contralateral testis relapses occurred. Ten patients died: lymphoma (n = 6), secondary leukemia (n = 2), heart failure (n = 1), and gastric cancer (n = 1). Grade 3 to 4 toxicities were neutropenia, 28%; infections, 4%; and neurologic, 13%. No deaths occurred as a result of toxicity. Conclusion: This international prospective trial shows that combined treatment with R-CHOP21, IT-MTX, and testicular RT was associated with a good outcome in patients with PTL. RT avoided contralateral testis relapses, but CNS prophylaxis deserves further investigation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research