First urinary tract infections in children: the role of the risk factors proposed by the Italian recommendations

I. Alberici, A. La Manna, M. Pennesi, M. Starc, F. Scozzola, G. Nicolini, A. Toffolo, G. Marra, R. Chimenz, F. Sica, S. Maringhini, L. Monasta, G. Montini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Aim: In 2009, the Italian society for paediatric nephrology suggested the need for cystography, following a first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI), only in children at high risk for dilating vesicoureteral reflux or in the event of a second infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the risk factors proposed by the Italian guidelines. Methods: Children aged 2–36 months, managed by 10 Italian hospitals between 2009 and 2013, with a first febrile UTI were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Four hundred and fourteen children were included: 51% female, mean age eight months. Escherichia coli was responsible of 84% UTIs. 269 children (65%) presented at least one risk factor, thus were further investigated: 44% had a reflux. The presence of a pathogen other than E. coli significantly predicted high-grade reflux, both in the univariate (Odd Ratio 2.52, 95% Confidence Interval 1.32–4.81, p < 0.005) and multivariate analysis (OR 2.74, 95% CI: 1.39–5.41, p: 0.003). 26/145 children (18%) with no risk factors experienced a second UTI, which prompted the execution of cystography, showing a dilating reflux in 11. Conclusion: Among the risk factors proposed by the Italian guidelines, only the presence of a pathogen other than E. coli significantly predicted reflux. Cystography can be postponed in children with no risk factors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)544-550
JournalActa Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics
Volume108
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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Keywords

  • Guidelines
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Vesicoureteral reflux

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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