The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 provides a rules-based synthesis of the available evidence on levels and trends in health outcomes, a diverse set of risk factors, and health system responses. GBD 2019 covered 204 countries and territories, as well as first administrative level disaggregations for 22 countries, from 1990 to 2019. Because GBD is highly standardised and comprehensive, spanning both fatal and non-fatal outcomes, and uses a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of hierarchical disease and injury causes, the study provides a powerful basis for detailed and broad insights on global health trends and emerging challenges. GBD 2019 incorporates data from 281 586 sources and provides more than 3·5 billion estimates of health outcome and health system measures of interest for global, national, and subnational policy dialogue. All GBD estimates are publicly available and adhere to the Guidelines on Accurate and Transparent Health Estimate Reporting. From this vast amount of information, five key insights that are important for health, social, and economic development strategies have been distilled. These insights are subject to the many limitations outlined in each of the component GBD capstone papers. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1135-1159
Number of pages25
Issue number10258
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • aging
  • disease burden
  • geography
  • global disease burden
  • health care cost
  • high income country
  • human
  • life expectancy
  • low income country
  • middle income country
  • politics
  • population growth
  • priority journal
  • public health
  • Review
  • risk factor
  • socioeconomics
  • birth rate
  • economics
  • female
  • global health
  • health care delivery
  • injury
  • male
  • non communicable disease
  • Birth Rate
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Female
  • Global Burden of Disease
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Noncommunicable Diseases
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Wounds and Injuries


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