Background: A subcutaneous formulation of pertuzumab and trastuzumab with recombinant human hyaluronidase in one ready-to-use, fixed-dose combination vial (pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and hyaluronidase-zzxf) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on June 29, 2020. We report the primary analysis of the FeDeriCa study, which was designed to assess the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of the fixed-dose subcutaneous formulation compared to intravenous pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer in the neoadjuvant–adjuvant setting. Methods: FeDeriCa, a randomised, open-label, international, multicentre, non-inferiority, phase 3 study, was done across 106 sites in 19 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, HER2-positive, operable, locally advanced, or inflammatory stage II–IIIC breast cancer, and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 55% or more were randomly assigned (1:1), using a voice-based or web-based response system, to receive intravenous pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose, followed by 420 mg maintenance doses) plus intravenous trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose, followed by 6 mg/kg maintenance doses) or the fixed-dose combination of pertuzumab and trastuzumab for subcutaneous injection (1200 mg pertuzumab plus 600 mg trastuzumab loading dose in 15 mL, followed by 600 mg pertuzumab plus 600 mg trastuzumab maintenance doses in 10 mL), both administered every 3 weeks with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were stratified by hormone receptor status, clinical stage, and chemotherapy regimen. The investigator selected one of the two protocol-approved standard chemotherapy regimens before randomisation. Four cycles of HER2-targeted therapy were administered concurrently with the taxane. After surgery, patients continued the HER2-targeted therapy to receive an additional 14 cycles (total of 18). The primary endpoint was non-inferiority of the cycle 7 pertuzumab serum trough concentration (Ctrough; ie, cycle 8 predose pertuzumab concentration) within the fixed-dose combination for subcutaneous injection versus intravenous pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in the per-protocol pharmacokinetic population (all enrolled patients who adhered to prespecified criteria for pharmacokinetic assessment). Non-inferiority was concluded if the lower bound of the 90% CI of the geometric mean ratio was 0·8 or higher. The safety population included all patients who received at least one dose of study medication, including chemotherapy or HER2-targeted therapy. Enrolment, neoadjuvant therapy, and surgery have been completed; adjuvant treatment and follow-up are ongoing. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03493854. Findings: Between June 14, 2018, and Dec 24, 2018, 252 patients were randomly assigned to the intravenous infusion group and 248 to the fixed-dose combination group. The geometric mean ratio of pertuzumab serum Ctrough subcutaneous to serum Ctrough intravenous was 1·22 (90% CI 1·14–1·31). The most common grade 3–4 adverse events occurring during neoadjuvant treatment with HER2-targeted therapy plus chemotherapy in 5% or more of patients were neutropenia (34 [13%] of 252 patients in the intravenous infusion group vs 35 [14%] of 248 patients in the fixed-dose combination group), decreased neutrophil count (31 [12%] vs 27 [11%]), febrile neutropenia (14 [6%] vs 16 [6%]), diarrhoea (12 [5%] vs 17 [7%]), and decreased white blood cell count (18 [7%] vs nine [4%]). At least one treatment-related serious adverse event was reported in 25 (10%) patients in the intravenous infusion group and 26 (10%) patients in the fixed-dose combination group. One patient in each treatment group had an adverse event that led to death (urosepsis in the intravenous infusion group and acute myocardial infarction in the fixed-dose combination group); neither death was related to HER2-targeted therapy. Interpretation: The study met its primary endpoint: the fixed-dose combination of pertuzumab and trastuzumab for subcutaneous injection provides non-inferior cycle 7 pertuzumab serum Ctrough concentrations to intravenous pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in the neoadjuvant setting with comparable total pathological complete response rates, supporting the FDA approval. Safety was similar between treatment groups, and in line with other pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and chemotherapy trials. Follow-up is ongoing for long-term outcomes, including efficacy and long-term safety. Funding: F Hoffmann-La Roche and Genentech.
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