Chronic changes in blood flow induce an adaptation of vascular caliber. Thus, arteries show inward remodeling after a reduction in blood flow. We hypothesized that this remodeling depends on the crosslinking enzyme tissue-type transglutaminase (tTG). Flow-dependent remodeling was studied in wild-type (WT) and tTG-null mice using a surgically imposed change in blood flow in small mesenteric arteries. WT mice showed inward remodeling after 2 days of low blood flow, which was absent in arteries from tTG-null mice. Yet, after continued low blood flow for 7 days, inward remodeling was similar in arteries from WT and tTG-null mice. Studying the alternative pathways of remodeling, we identified a relatively high expression of the plasma transglutaminase factor XIII in arteries of WT and tTG-null mice. In addition, vessels from both WT and tTG-null mice showed the presence of transglutaminase-specific crosslinks. An accumulation of adventitial monocytes/macrophages was found in vessels exposed to low blood flow in tTG-null mice. Because monocytes/macrophages may represent a source of factor XIII, tTG-null mice were treated with liposome-encapsulated clodronate. Elimination of monocytes/macrophages with liposome-encapsulated clodronate reduced both the expression of factor XIII and inward remodeling in tTG-null mice. In conclusion, tTG plays an important role in the inward remodeling of small arteries associated with decreased blood flow. Adventitial monocytes/macrophages are a source of factor XIII in tTG-null mice and contribute to an alternative, delayed mechanism of inward remodeling when tTG is absent.
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2006|
- Blood flow
- Resistance arteries
- Vascular remodeling
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine