We investigated the effect of hemodynamic shear forces on the expression of adhesive molecules, E-selectin, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to laminar (8 dynes/cm2) or turbulent shear stress (8.6 dynes/cm2 average), or to a static condition. Laminar flow induced a significant time-dependent increase in the surface expression of ICAM-1, as documented by flow cytometry studies. Endothelial cell surface expression of ICAM-1 in supernatants of HUVEC exposed to laminar flow was not modified, excluding the possibility that HUVEC exposed to laminar flow synthetize factors that upregulate ICAM-1. The effect of laminar flow was specific for ICAM-1, while E-selectin expression was not modulated by the flow condition. Turbulent flow did not affect surface expression of either E-selectin or ICAM-1. To evaluate the functional significance of the laminar-flow-induced increase in ICAM-1 expression, we studied the dynamic interaction of total leukocyte suspension with HUVEC exposed to laminar flow (8 dynes/cm2 for 6 hours) in a parallel-plate flow chamber or to static condition. Leukocyte adhesion to HUVEC pre-exposed to flow was significantly enhanced, compared with HUVEC maintained in static condition (233 ± 67 v 43 ± 16 leukocytes/mm2, respectively), and comparable with that of interleukin-1β treated HUVEC. Mouse monoclonal antibody anti-ICAM-1 completely blocked flow-induced upregulation of leukocyte adhesion. Interleukin-1β, which upregulated E-selectin expression, caused leukocyte rolling on HUVEC that was significantly lower on flow- conditioned HUVEC and almost absent on untreated static endothelial cells. Thus, laminar flow directly and selectively upregulates ICAM-1 expression on the surface of endothelial cells and promotes leukocyte adhesion. These data are relevant to the current understanding of basic mechanisms that govern local inflammatory reactions and tissue injury.
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - 1995|
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