The biology of HIV is rather complex due to high rate of replication, frequent recombination, and introduction of mutations. This gives rise to a number of distinct variants referred as quasispecies. In addition, the latency within reservoir allows the periodic reactivation of virus replication. The rapid replication of HIV allows immune response escape and establishment of resistance to therapy that can be acquired through drug selection and/or transmitted among individuals. This prompted, over the years, the development of a range of assays aimed to determine drug resistance and sensitivity, to be used both in clinical practice and in antiviral research. Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors have an eminent place among the anti-HIV drugs, being constantly present from the beginning until today in the most commonly used antiviral regimens. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent efforts in developing even more reliable and simple methods, of both genotypic and phenotypic types, for specifically detecting drug resistance and sensitivity to RT inhibitors.
- Diagnostic Tests, Routine
- Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral
- Genotyping Techniques
- HIV Infections/drug therapy
- HIV-1/drug effects
- Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology
- Virus Replication