Objectives - Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is usually recommended in the evaluation of the patent foramen ovale (PFO). Our goal is to confirm the efficacy of contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler (ce-TCD) in detecting residual significant right-to-left shunts (RLS) after PFO percutaneous closure. Materials and methods - Sixty-eight patients with a previous transient ischemic attack, stroke and a large PFO were investigated for residual RLS after percutaneous closure. Results - Assuming TEE as the gold standard, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of ce-TCD was 100%, whereas the specificity was 75.8% and the positive predictive value was 28%. Conclusions - ce-TCD appears to be the preferable technique to identify subjects with significant residual shunts after percutaneous closure of a PFO. In follow-up, if ce-TCD is negative, no further examination may be necessary; whereas if ce-TCD shows a residual shunt, it is advisable to perform a TEE investigation.
- patent foramen ovale
- transcranial doppler
- transesophageal echocardiography
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology