Foodomics as part of the host-microbiota-exposome interplay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The functional complexity of human gut microbiota and its relationship with host physiology and environmental modulating factors, offers the opportunity to investigate (i) the host and microbiota role in organism-environment relationship; (ii) the individual functional diversity and response to environmental . stimuli (exposome); (iii) the host genome and microbiota metagenomes' modifications by diet-mediated epigenomic controls (nutriepigenomics); and (iv) the genotype-phenotype "trajectories" under physiological and disease constraints. Systems biology-based approaches aim at integrating biological data at cellular, tissue and organ organization levels, using computational modeling to interpret diseases' physiopathological mechanisms (i.e., onset and progression). Proteomics improves the existing gene models by profiling molecular phenotypes at protein abundance level, by analyzing post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions and providing specific pathway information, hence contributing to functional molecular networks. Transcriptomics and metabolomics may determine host ad microbiota changes induced by food ingredients at molecular level, complementing functional genomics and proteomics data. Since foodomics is an -omic wide methodology may feed back all integrative data to foster the omics-based systems medicine field. Hence, coupled to ecological genomics of gut microbial communities, foodomics may highlight health benefits from nutrients, dissecting diet-induced gut microbiota eubiosis mechanisms and significantly contributing to understand and prevent complex disease phenotypes. Biological significance: Besides transcriptomics and proteomics there is a growing interest in applying metabolic profiling to food science for the development of functional foods. Indeed, one of the biggest challenges of modern nutrition is to propose a healthy diet to populations worldwide, intrinsically respecting the high inter-individual variability, driven by complex . host/nutrients/microbiota/environment interactions. Therefore, metabolic profiling can assist at various levels for the development of functional foods, starting from screening for food composition to identification of new biomarkers to trace food intake. This current approach can support diet intervention strategies, epidemiological studies, and controlling of metabolic disorders worldwide spreading, hence ensuring healthy aging.With high-throughput molecular technologies driving foodomics, studying bidirectional interactions of host-microbial co-metabolism, innate immune development, dysfunctional nutrient absorption and processing, complex signaling pathways involved in nutritional metabolism, is now likely. In all cases, as microbiome pipeline efforts continue, it is possible that enhanced standardized protocols can be developed, which may lead to new testable biological and clinical hypotheses.This Review provides a comprehensive update on the current . state-of-the-art of the integrated -omics route in food, microbiota and host co-metabolism studies, which may revolutionize the design of new dietary intervention strategies.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Proteomics
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 16 2016

Keywords

  • Data integration
  • Foodomics
  • Panomics
  • Phenomics
  • Systems biology
  • Systems medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Biophysics

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