Foot pressure wearable sensors for freezing of gait detection in parkinson’s disease

Andrea Marcante, Roberto Di Marco, Giovanni Gentile, Clelia Pellicano, Francesca Assogna, Francesco Ernesto Pontieri, Gianfranco Spalletta, Lucia Macchiusi, Dimitris Gatsios, Alexandros Giannakis, Maria Chondrogiorgi, Spyridon Konitsiotis, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis, Angelo Antonini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Freezing of Gait (FoG) is a common symptom in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) occurring with significant variability and severity and is associated with increased risk of falls. FoG detection in everyday life is not trivial, particularly in patients manifesting the symptom only in specific conditions. Various wearable devices have been proposed to detect PD symptoms, primarily based on inertial sensors. We here report the results of the validation of a novel system based on a pair of pressure insoles equipped with a 3D accelerometer to detect FoG episodes. Twenty PD patients attended a motor assessment protocol organized into eight multiple video recorded sessions, both in clinical and ecological settings and both in the ON and OFF state. We compared the FoG episodes detected using the processed data gathered from the insoles with those tagged by a clinician on video recordings. The algorithm correctly detected 90% of the episodes. The false positive rate was 6% and the false negative rate 4%. The algorithm reliably detects freezing of gait in clinical settings while performing ecological tasks. This result is promising for freezing of gait detection in everyday life via wearable instrumented insoles that can be integrated into a more complex system for comprehensive motor symptom monitoring in PD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number128
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2021


  • Accelerometer
  • Freezing of gait
  • Gait monitoring
  • Insoles
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Wearable device

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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