Forever Young' - Testosterone replacement therapy: A blockbuster drug despite flabby evidence and broken promises

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


In the last decade, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been increasingly prescribed to treat a controversial condition known as late-onset hypogonadism (LOH)'. This syndrome is diagnosed in men who, for no discernible reason other than older age, obesity or ill health have serum testosterone concentrations below the normal range for healthy young men and report one or more of the following symptoms: Muscle weakness or wasting, mood, behaviour and cognition-related symptoms and sexual function or libido impairment. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that testosterone drugs do not substantially ameliorate these symptoms and, more worryingly, that their long-term use may be associated with severe adverse effects (i.e. increased risk of prostate cancer, stroke and myocardial infarction, worsening of benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms and testicular atrophy). Nonetheless, testosterone drugs have exhibited extraordinary commercial success and their pharmaceutical sales are steadily rising. Behind this apparently unjustifiable trend there are deliberate, well designed direct and indirect pharmaceutical marketing initiatives that exploit the conviction rooted in contemporary society that testosterone can reverse the effects of ageing and ensure social accomplishment. Commercial mechanisms have laid the foundation for disease mongering of LOH and also have resulted a considerable expansion of the indications for treatment. This promotion model deserves particular attention since it is applicable to any drug with a purportedly favourable risk-benefit ratio not supported by evidence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)719-724
Number of pages6
JournalHuman Reproduction
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2017


  • disease mongering
  • late-onset hypogonadism
  • LOH
  • marketing campaign
  • risk-benefit ratio
  • testosterone
  • testosterone replacement therapy
  • TRT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Rehabilitation
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


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