The formyl peptide receptor (FPR) is a key player in innate immunity and host defense mechanisms. In humans and other primates, a cluster of genes encodes two related receptors, FPR-like 1 and FPR-like 2 (FPRL1 and FPRL2). Despite their high sequence similarity, the three receptors respond to different sets of ligands and display a different expression pattern in leukocyte populations. Unlike FPR and FPRL1, FPRL2 is absent from neutrophils, and two endogenous peptide agonists, F2L and humanin, were recently described. In the present work, we investigated the detailed functional distribution of FPRL2 in leukocytes by quantitative PCR, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and chemotaxis assays, with the aim of raising hypotheses regarding its potential functions in the human body. We describe that FPRL2 is highly expressed and functional in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and up-regulated upon their maturation. FPRL2 is also expressed in eosinophils, which are recruited but do not degranulate in response to F2L. FPRL2 is expressed and functional in macrophages differentiated from monocytes in vitro in different conditions. However, in vivo, only specific subsets of macrophages express the receptor, particularly in the lung, colon, and skin, three organs chronically exposed to pathogens and exogenous aggressions. This distribution and the demonstration of the production of the F2L peptide in mice underline the potential role of FPRL2 in innate immunity and possibly in immune regulation and allergic diseases.
ASJC Scopus subject areas