BACKGROUND: Several types of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) have been described in the duodenal tract, from low-grade tumors (NETs) to high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). A comprehensive analysis of histology, hormonal profile and prognostic parameters of a sufficiently large duodenal NEN series to cover all main kinds of neoplasms is however lacking. METHODS: We collected a retrospective series of 203 duodenal wall and ampullary region NENs, from six specialized endocrine pathology centers. All were characterized histopathologically and histochemically, and 190 were followed for a median of 9 years. RESULTS: Twenty-seven poorly differentiated NECs, mostly from the ampullary region, were identified and shown to lead to patient demise in a median of 10 months. Among 176 NETs, four subtypes were characterized, including 20 gastrinomas, 37 ampullary-type somatostatin-producing NETs (ASTs), 12 gangliocytic paragangliomas (GPs) and 106 nonfunctioning NETs (nfNETs). ASTs and GPs were mostly localized in the ampullary/periampullary region, while gastrinomas and nfNETs were mainly from the proximal duodenum. ASTs and gastrinomas showed high rates of local infiltration (especially lymphoinvasion and deep duodenal wall/pancreatic tissue invasion) and lymph node metastasis, while nfNETs had significantly lower and more size-dependent local invasive potential. Disease-specific survival differed significantly between NETs and NECs, though not among NET subtypes. NET cases with distant metastases (n = 23) were significantly associated with larger size, higher proliferative grade, lymphovascular invasion, deep invasion and local lymph node metastasis. CONCLUSION: Our careful analysis of a large series of duodenal NENs identified five histologically and prognostically different histotypes of potential clinical relevance.
- Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/epidemiology/pathology
- Duodenal Neoplasms/epidemiology/pathology
- Middle Aged
- Neoplasm Grading
- Neuroendocrine Tumors/epidemiology/pathology
- Retrospective Studies
- Survival Analysis