Free and cued selective reminding test: An Italian normative study

P. Frasson, R. Ghiretti, E. Catricalà, S. Pomati, A. Marcone, L. Parisi, P. M. Rossini, S. F. Cappa, C. Mariani, N. Vanacore, F. Clerici

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The presence of episodic memory impairment is required for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia by all current diagnostic criteria. The new research criteria proposed by Dubois et al. (Lancet Neurol 6:734-746, 2007) require that the impairment should not improve significantly with cueing, recognition testing nor after the control of effective encoding. This is considered to be the core deficit of "prodromal Alzheimer's disease". The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is a memory test that allows in assessing these specific features of memory impairment. Here, we report normative data for an Italian version of the FCSRT. The test is based on the 12 pictorial stimuli, 6 belonging to the living domain, and 6 to the nonliving domain. Six scores were derived from the performance of 227 healthy Italian adults, with age, sex and education homogenously distributed across subgroups: immediate free recall (IFR), immediate total recall (ITR), delayed-free recall (DFR), delayed total recall (DTR), Index of Sensitivity of Cueing (ISC), number of intrusions. In multiple regression analyses, age emerged as an influencing factor for both IFR and DFR, with older people obtaining lower scores. Education and gender appear to influence only IFR, with better performance by more educated subjects and females. Adjusted scores were used to determine inferential cutoff scores and to compute equivalent scores.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1057-1062
Number of pages6
JournalNeurological Sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2011


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Memory
  • Reference values
  • Semantic cues

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Dermatology


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