Frequency and risk factors of mitoxantrone-induced amenorrhea in multiple sclerosis: The FEMIMS study

E. Cocco, C. Sardu, P. Gallo, R. Capra, M. P. Amato, M. Trojano, A. Uccelli, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, M. Galeotti, C. Cordioli, S. Massole, L. Musu, G. Coghe, F. Patti, A. Lugaresi, M. R. Tola, V. Zipoli, G. L. Mancardi, E. Capello, C. SolaroC. Caputo, R. Cavarretta, E. Merelli, P. Perini, A. Francia, A. P. Batocchi, R. Bergamaschi, E. Tavazzi, P. Cavalla, S. Masera, A. Bertolotto, M. Capobianco, M. Zorzon, A. Ghezzi, M. Zaffaroni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Improved prognosis in women with multiple sclerosis (MS) undergoing immunosuppressive treatment with mitoxantrone (MITO) has led to an increased interest in the effect of such treatments on fertility. FErtility and Mitoxantrone In MS (FEMIMS) is a collaborative retrospective study aimed at evaluating the impact of MITO treatment on fertility in women with MS. Methods: Occurrence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) was evaluated in 189 women with MS treated with MITO before the age of 45. An "ad hoc" questionnaire, paying particular attention to onset of CIA either during or post-MITO treatment, was administered to each patient. The probability of CIA was calculated using a multivariate logistic regression analysis taking into account age at exposure, cumulative dose, and use of estroprogestinic (EP) drugs during treatment. Results: Forty-eight (26%) patients presented CIA following MITO. The probability of CIA was increased by 2%/mg/m2 of cumulative dose and by 18% for each year of age, whereas it was reduced by administration of EP during treatment. Conclusions: MITO treatment may affect reproductive capacity in women with MS. Patients of childbearing age should be properly counseled before MITO treatment and EP therapy should be administered to reduce the risk of CIA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1225-1233
Number of pages9
JournalMultiple Sclerosis Journal
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • Amenorrhea
  • Estroprogestinic drug
  • Fertility
  • Immunosuppressive drugs
  • Mitoxantrone
  • Multiple sclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Frequency and risk factors of mitoxantrone-induced amenorrhea in multiple sclerosis: The FEMIMS study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this