From Neuronal Differentiation of iPSCs to 3D Neuro-Organoids: Modelling and Therapy of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Matteo Bordoni, Federica Rey, Valentina Fantini, Orietta Pansarasa, Anna Maria Di Giulio, Stephana Carelli, Cristina Cereda

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


In the last decade, the advances made into the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) led to great improvements towards their use as models of diseases. In particular, in the field of neurodegenerative diseases, iPSCs technology allowed to culture in vitro all types of patient-specific neural cells, facilitating not only the investigation of diseases' etiopathology, but also the testing of new drugs and cell therapies, leading to the innovative concept of personalized medicine. Moreover, iPSCs can be differentiated and organized into 3D organoids, providing a tool which mimics the complexity of the brain's architecture. Furthermore, recent developments in 3D bioprinting allowed the study of physiological cell-to-cell interactions, given by a combination of several biomaterials, scaffolds, and cells. This technology combines bio-plotter and biomaterials in which several types of cells, such as iPSCs or differentiated neurons, can be encapsulated in order to develop an innovative cellular model. IPSCs and 3D cell cultures technologies represent the first step towards the obtainment of a more reliable model, such as organoids, to facilitate neurodegenerative diseases' investigation. The combination of iPSCs, 3D organoids and bioprinting will also allow the development of new therapeutic approaches. Indeed, on the one hand they will lead to the development of safer and patient-specific drugs testing but, also, they could be developed as cell-therapy for curing neurodegenerative diseases with a regenerative medicine approach.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 10 2018


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