Cervical cancer (CC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in women aged 20-39 years. Persistent infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) represents the most important risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. Three HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: bivalent, quadrivalent, and nonavalent. The nonavalent vaccine provides protection against almost 90related CC. Despite availability of primary and secondary prevention measures, CC persists as one of the most common cancers among women around the world. Although CC is a largely preventable disease, management of persistent or recurrent CC no longer amenable to control with surgery or radiation therapy has not improved significantly with the progress of modern chemotherapy and disseminated carcinoma of the cervix remains a discouraging clinical entity with a 1-year survival rate between 105 there has been increasing interest in immunotherapy as a strategy to fight tumors. This article focuses on recent discoveries about the HPV vaccine and immunotherapies in the prevention and treatment of CC, highlighting the future view.
- cervical cancer