Frontomaxillary facial angle in chromosomally normal fetuses at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks

M. Borenstein, N. Persico, C. Kaihura, J. Sonek, K. H. Nicolaides

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To establish the normal range of the frontomaxillary facial (FMF) angle at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation. Methods: In this prospective study, three-dimensional (3D) volumes of the fetal head were obtained from 500 pregnancies before fetal karyotyping by chorionic villus sampling (CVS), after screening by fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks. Only cases with a normal karyotype were included in this study. The FMF angle was measured off-line. In a subgroup of 150 cases the FMF angle was measured using 2D ultrasound before obtaining a 3D volume. In 50 cases the 3D volumes were used to measure the FMF angle by the same examiner twice and by another examiner once. Results: The mean FMF angle decreased with crown-rump length (CRL) from 84.3° at CRL 45 mm to 76.5° at CRL 84 mm. There was no significant association between the FMF angle and fetal NT or serum PAPP-A or β-hCG. In the volumes with paired measurements, the difference between two measurements by the same or two sonographers was

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)737-741
Number of pages5
JournalUltrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2007


  • Fetal maxilla
  • Fetal palate
  • First-trimester screening
  • Frontomaxillary facial angle
  • Three-dimensional ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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