Fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer: No association among 1,104 cases in a prospective study of 130,544 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Timothy J. Key, Naomi Allen, Paul Appleby, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Anthony Miller, Heiner Boeing, Dimitrios Karalis, Theodora Psaltopoulou, Franco Berrino, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Rosario Tumino, Paolo Vineis, H. B. Bueno-De-Mesquita, Lambertus Kiemeney, Petra H M Peeters, Carmen Martinez, Miren Dorronsoro, Carlos A. GonzálezM. D. Chirlaque, J. Ramon Quiros, Eva Ardanaz, Göran Berglund, Lars Egevad, Göran Hallmans, Pär Stattin, Sheila Bingham, Nicholas Day, Peter Gann, Rudolf Kaaks, Pietro Ferrari, Elio Riboli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We examined the association between self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer incidence were available for 130,544 men in 7 countries recruited into EPIC between 1993 and 1999. After an average of 4.8 years of follow-up, there were 1,104 incident cases of prostate cancer. The associations of consumption of total fruits, total vegetables, cruciferous vegetables and combined total fruits and vegetables with prostate cancer risk were examined using Cox regression, stratified for recruitment center and adjusted for height, weight and energy intake. There was a wide range in consumption of fruits and vegetables: mean intakes (g/day) in the bottom and top fifths of the distribution, as estimated from 24-hr recalls in a subsample of participants, were 53.2 and 410.7 for fruits, 97.1 and 242.1 for vegetables and 169.0 and 633.7 for fruits and vegetables combined. No significant associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and prostate cancer risk were observed. Relative risks (95% confidence intervals) in the top fifth of the distribution of consumption, compared to the bottom fifth, were 1.06 (0.84-1.34) for total fruits, 1.00 (0.81-1.22) for total vegetables and 1.00 (0.79-1.26) for total fruits and vegetables combined; intake of cruciferous vegetables was not associated with risk. These results suggest that total consumption of fruits and vegetables is not associated with the risk for prostate cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-124
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Volume109
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 10 2004

Keywords

  • Cruciferous vegetables
  • Etiology
  • Fruits
  • Prostate cancer
  • Vegetables

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

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  • Cite this

    Key, T. J., Allen, N., Appleby, P., Overvad, K., Tjønneland, A., Miller, A., Boeing, H., Karalis, D., Psaltopoulou, T., Berrino, F., Palli, D., Panico, S., Tumino, R., Vineis, P., Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B., Kiemeney, L., Peeters, P. H. M., Martinez, C., Dorronsoro, M., ... Riboli, E. (2004). Fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer: No association among 1,104 cases in a prospective study of 130,544 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). International Journal of Cancer, 109(1), 119-124. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.11671