A number of Xp22;Yq11 translocations involving the transposition of Yq material to the distal short arm of the X chromosome have been described. The reciprocal product, i.e. the derivative Y chromosome resulting from the translocation of a portion of Xp to Yq, has never been recovered. We searched for this reciprocal product by performing dosage analysis of Xp22-pter loci in 9 individuals carrying a non-fluorescent Y chromosome. In three mentally retarded and dysmorphic patients, dosage analysis indicated the duplication of Xp22 loci. Use of the highly polymorphic probe CRI-S232 demonstrated the inheritance of paternal Xp-specific alleles in the probands. In situ hybridization, performed in one case, confirmed that 29CL pseudoautosomal sequences were present, in addition to Xpter and Ypter, in the telomeric portion of Yq. To our knowledge, these are the first cases in which the translocation of Xp material to Yq has been demonstrated. The X and Y breakpoints were mapped in the three patients by dosage and deletion analysis. The X breakpoint falls, in the three cases, in a region of Xp22 that is not recognized as sharing sequence similarities with the Y chromosome, thus suggesting that these translocations are not the result of a homologous recombination event.
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