A precise knowledge of the early events inducing maturation of resting microglia into a competent APC may help to understand the involvement of this cell type in the development of CNS immunopathology. To elucidate whether signals from preactivated T cells are sufficient to induce APC features in resting microglia, microglia from the adult BALB/c mouse CNS were cocultured with Th1 and Th2 lines from DO11.10 TCR transgenic mice to examine modulation of APC-related molecules and Ag-presenting capacity. Upon Ag-specific interaction with Th1, but not Th2, cells, microglia strongly up-regulated the surface expression of MHC class II, CD40, and CD54 molecules. Induction of CD86 on mouse microglia did not require T cell-derived signals. Acutely isolated adult microglia stimulated Th1 cells to secrete IFN-γ and, to a lesser extent, IL-2, but were inefficient stimulators of IL-4 secretion by Th2 cells. Microglia exposed in vitro to IFN-γ showed enhanced expression of MHC class II, CD40, and CD54 molecules and became able to restimulate Th2 cells. In addition to IFN-γ, GM-CSF increased the ability of microglia to activate Th1, but not Th2, cells without up-regulating MHC class II, CD40, or CD54 molecules. These results suggest that interaction with Th1 cells and/or Th1-secreted soluble factors induces the functional maturation of adult mouse microglia into an APC able to sustain CD4+ T cell activation. Moreover, GM- CSF, a cytokine secreted by T cells as well as reactive astrocytes, could prime microglia for Th1-stimulating capacity, possibly by enhancing their responsiveness to Th1-derived signals.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Immunology|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 15 2000|
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