Based on architectonic, tract-tracing or functional criteria, the rostral portion of ventral premotor cortex in the macaque monkey, also termed area F5, has been divided into several subfields. Cytoarchitectonical investigations suggest the existence of three subfields, F5c (convexity), F5p (posterior) and F5a (anterior). Electrophysiological investigations have suggested a gradual dorso-ventral transition from hand- to mouth-dominated motor fields, with F5p and ventral F5c strictly related to hand movements and mouth movements, respectively. The involvement of F5a in this respect, however, has received much less attention. Recently, data-driven resting-state fMRI approaches have also been used to examine the presence of distinct functional fields in macaque ventral premotor cortex. Although these studies have suggested several functional clusters in/near macaque F5, so far the parcellation schemes derived from these clustering methods do not completely retrieve the same level of F5 specialization as suggested by aforementioned invasive techniques. Here, using seed-based resting-state fMRI analyses, we examined the functional connectivity of different F5 seeds with key regions of the hand and face/mouth parieto-frontal-insular motor networks. In addition, we trained monkeys to perform either hand grasping or ingestive mouth movements in the scanner in order to compare resting-state with task-derived functional hand and mouth motor networks. In line with previous single-cell investigations, task-fMRI suggests involvement of F5p, dorsal F5c and F5a in the execution of hand grasping movements, while non-communicative mouth movements yielded particularly pronounced responses in ventral F5c. Corroborating with anatomical tracing data of macaque F5 subfields, seed-based resting-state fMRI suggests a transition from predominant functional correlations with the hand-motor network in F5p to mostly mouth-motor network functional correlations in ventral F5c. Dorsal F5c yielded robust functional correlations with both hand- and mouth-motor networks. In addition, the deepest part of the fundus of the inferior arcuate, corresponding to area 44, displayed a strikingly different functional connectivity profile compared to neighboring F5a, suggesting a different functional specialization for these two neighboring regions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cognitive Neuroscience