BACKGROUND: Galectin-3, considered as a new inflammatory marker; it is increased in cardiovascular disease. We investigated Galectin-3 in relation to heart damage in patients with OSA and its role in inflammation, based on the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR).
METHODS: Sixty-three consecutive patients (45 males, 18 females, 58.60 ± 12.28 years old) were studied. According to the Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (AHI) patients were divided into Group 1 - non-severe (AHI <30) (17 males and 10 females, 59.89 ± 10.62 years old) and Group 2 - severe (AHI ≥30) (29 males and 6 females, aged 57.53 ± 13.30 years old) OSA. All patients underwent morning blood gas analysis, laboratory tests, nocturnal polygraphy, and echocardiography.
RESULTS: Galectin-3 was significantly increased in Group 2 (p = 0.027) patients. Moreover, it was directly related to left ventricle (LV) mass, left ventricle hypertrophy and LV posterior wall diameter. Tissue Doppler septal velocity (e'), that measures wall motion, was inversely correlated to Galectin-3. Furthermore, a direct association to diastolic dysfunction, evaluated as E/e' ratio, was observed. In line with these data, a direct correlation between Galectin-3 and left atrium volume was also found. Galectin-3 and percentage of total registration time with nocturnal oxygen saturation <90% (TST90) were directly correlated (p = 0.0003), while Galectin-3 and mean nocturnal SpO2 were negatively correlated (p = 0.0045). We found a direct correlation between Galectin-3 and NLR (p = 0.011). Finally, Galectin-3 was able to predict 3-yr mortality with a specificity of 83.33% and a sensitivity of 91.84%.
CONCLUSION: Galectin-3 showed a direct association to nocturnal respiratory indices and to cardiac remodelling in patients with OSA. OSA-induced inflammation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of heart damage.
- Blood Proteins
- Galectin 3
- Middle Aged
- Severity of Illness Index
- Sleep Apnea, Obstructive