Gastric carcinoids: Between underestimation and overtreatment

Sara Massironi, Valentina Sciola, Matilde Pia Spampatti, Maddalena Peracchi, Dario Conte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Gastric carcinoids (GCs), which originate from gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) mucosal cells and account for 2.4% of all carcinoids, are found increasingly in the course of upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. Current nosography includes those occurring in chronic conditions with hypergastrinemia, as the type 1 associated with chronic atrophic gastritis, and the type 2 associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and type 3, which is unrelated to hypergastrinemia and is frequently malignant, with distant metastases. The optimal clinical approach to GCs remains to be elucidated, depending upon type, size and number of carcinoids. While there is agreement concerning the treatment of type 3 carcinoids, for types 1 and 2, current possibilities include simple surveillance, endoscopic polypectomy, surgical excision, associated or not with surgical antrectomy, or total gastrectomy. Moreover, the recent introduction of somatostatin analogues represents a therapeutic option of possibly outstanding relevance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2177-2183
Number of pages7
JournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - May 14 2009



  • Chronic atrophic gastritis
  • Endocrine tumors
  • Enterochromaffin-like cells
  • Gastric carcinoids
  • Hypergastrinemia
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia tupe 1
  • Well-differentiated tumors
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

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