Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: Searching the optimal treatment strategy-A literature review

Berardi Rossana, Rinaldi Silvia, Torniai Mariangela, Morgese Francesca, Partelli Stefano, Caramanti Miriam, Onofri Azzurra, Polenta Vanessa, Pagliaretta Silvia, Falconi Massimo, Cascinu Stefano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastro-entero-pancreatic system (GEP-NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, with different malignant potential and behavior. Many treatment options are available. Surgery should be considered for localized tumors and in some selected cases of metastatic disease. Somatostatin analogs, useful for symptoms control in functioning tumors, are also effective to inhibit tumor progression in specific settings. The multi-TKI sunitinib and of the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus are efficacy for metastatic pancreatic NET (P-NET) treatment. Chemotherapy is generally used in symptomatic and progressive NETs. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) should be recommended after failure of medical therapy. For tumors confined to the liver ablative techniques should be considered. Nevertheless a shared therapeutic sequence for GEP-NET treatment still does not exist. In this review, we analyzed available data trying to identify the better treatment strategy and to suggest potential therapeutic algorithms distinguishing P-NETs from gastrointestinal NETs (GI-NETs).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)264-274
Number of pages11
JournalCritical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2016


  • Chemotherapy
  • Everolimus
  • Neuroendocrine tumor
  • Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy
  • Somatostatin analogs
  • Sunitinib
  • Surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Hematology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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