Gender differences in copper, zinc and selenium status in diabetic-free metabolic syndrome European population - The IMMIDIET study

J. Arnaud, M. de Lorgeril, T. Akbaraly, P. Salen, J. Arnout, F. P. Cappuccio, M. C J M van Dongen, M. B. Donati, V. Krogh, A. Siani, L. Iacoviello, Licia Iacoviello, Jef Arnout, Buntinx F. Frank, P. Cappuccio, Pieter C. Dagnelie, Maria Benedetta Donati, Michel de Lorgeril, Vittorio Krogh, Alfonso SianiCarla Dirckx, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Martien C J M van Dongen, Vittorio Krogh, Americo Bonanni, Carla Dirckx, Pit Rink, Branislav Vohnout, Francesco Zito, Iacoviello Licia Iacoviello, Francesco Zito, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Romina di Giuseppe, Americo Bonanni, Branislav Vohnout, Marco Olivieri, Amalia De Curtis, Maria Benedetta Donati, Giovanni de Gaetano, Jef Arnout, Carla Dirckx, Ward Achten, Frank Buntinx, Carla Dirckx, Jan Heyrman, Francesco P. Cappuccio, Michelle A. Miller, Pit Rink, Sally C. Dean, Clare Harper, Pieter C. Dagnelie, Martien C J M van Dongen, Dirk Lemaître, Michel de Lorgeril, Vittorio Krogh, Sabrina Sieri, Manuela Bellegotti, Daniela Del Sette Cerulli, Alfonso Siani, Gianvincenzo Barba, Paola Russo, Antonella Venezia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and aims: The European 'IMMIDIET' study was designed to evaluate the effect of genetic and dietary habit interactions on cardiovascular disease risk factors in non-diabetic subjects. Copper, zinc and selenium are involved in redox balance and modifications of their homeostasis could be associated with metabolic syndrome. Because few studies have dealt with trace element status in metabolic syndrome with conflicting results, we aimed at investigating the relationships between plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations and metabolic syndrome in the IMMIDIET population. Methods and results: Male-female couples born and living in Abruzzo, Italy (n = 271); Limburg, Belgium (n = 267), southwest part of London, England (n = 263) and 205 Italian-Belgian mixed couples living in Belgium were enrolled. Data on medical history, hypertension and blood lipid profile, medication use, smoking and alcohol habits, physical activity and socioeconomic status were collected using a standardised questionnaire. Anthropometric, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, lipid profile and copper, zinc and selenium measurements were performed. Participants were classified in two groups according to the presence of metabolic syndrome (Yes/No).Comparison between these two groups, performed separately in men and women, indicated no association in men whereas, in women, metabolic syndrome was associated with higher plasma selenium concentrations (odds ratio (OR) = 1.55(1.28-1.89)); this association remained significant after adjustment for age, group, social status, physical activity, energy intake, alcohol consumption, smoking and hormonal status (OR = 1.33 (1.06-1.67)). Conclusion: Our results indicate gender differences in the association between plasma selenium concentration and metabolic syndrome without diabetes and may suggest a sub-clinical deleterious effect of high selenium status in women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)517-524
Number of pages8
JournalNutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012


  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Copper
  • Europe
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Selenium
  • Zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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