This study examined the effects of in vitro challenge with four polymerized acrylic bone cements (Sulfix-60®, CMW 1®, CMW 2®, and CMW 3®) on the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) mRNAs in the osteoblast-like cell line MG63. The extracts of the cements in minimal essential medium (MEM) were tested following 1-h and 7-day curing. A semi-quantitative analysis of the cytokine-specific mRNAs was carried out by agarose gel densitometry and expression was compared with the GAPDH housekeeping gene. The ratio between cytokine gene expression and GAPDH expression was calculated. The mRNA specific for the bone-resorbing cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 was low in basal conditions. IL-1β mRNA increased only after incubation with the extract of CMW 1® following 1-h curing. The mRNA specific for the bone-resorbing cytokine IL-6 also increased after contact with CMW 1® at both curing times. Sulfix-60® and CMW 3® following 7-day curing, but not after 1 h, induced higher levels of IL-6 mRNA than the control. CMW 2® after 1-h curing constantly determined the expression of IL-6 mRNA, but at low levels. The mRNA specific for TGF-β1 was also expressed by the MG63 osteoblast-like cells in basal conditions. The levels increased after contact with Sulfix-60® after 7-day curing and with CMW 1® after 1-h curing. CMW 2® after 7-day curing decreased TGF-β1 mRNA. In conclusion, the highest expression of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TGF-β1 mRNA was determined by CMW 1®. If the results are confirmed in vivo, the increased expression of the osteolytic cytokines induced by the bone cement might result in loosening of the prosthesis, even with all the restrictions of an in vitro study on continuous cell lines.
- Transforming growth factor-β1
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