Factor X (FX) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. The phenotype and genotype of 15 Iranian patients with FX deficiency from 13 unrelated families with a high frequency of consanguinity were analysed. Five different assays identified four patients from three families with a discrepancy between low-FX coagulant activity (FX:C) and higher-FX antigen (FX:Ag) (a type II deficiency). The remaining 11 patients had parallel reductions of FX:C and FX:Ag (a type I deficiency). Nine different homozygous candidate mutations were identified, of which eight were novel. The four type II cases were associated with an Arg(-1)Thr missense mutation in the prepropeptide: Arg(-1) is highly conserved in all vitamin K-dependent proteins. Four type I mutations (Gly78Asp, Cys81Tyr, Gly94Arg and Asp95Glu) were localized to the EGF-1 and EGF-2 domains, for which molecular views showed that the protein folding would be disrupted. The type I mutation Gly222Asp was localized in the catalytic domain of FX, and is sufficiently close to the Asp-His-Ser catalytic triad to disrupt its correct protein folding. The two type I splice site mutations were IVS1+3, A → T and IVS2-3, T → G. These novel homozygous FX mutations were consistent with their phenotypes and agree with experimental data from knockout mice, indicating that FX is an essential protein for survival.
- FX deficiency
- FX deficiency phenotype analysis
- FX mutations
ASJC Scopus subject areas