Mucopolysaccharidosis type I is a lysosomal disease due to mutations in the IDUA gene, resulting in deficiency of α-L-iduronidase and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Bone marrow transplantation and enzyme replacement are two therapies considered only moderately successful for affected patients, making the development of novel treatments necessary. We have previously shown the efficacy of lentivirus-mediated gene transfer to correct patient fibroblasts in vitro. Here we tested lentiviral-IDUA vector gene therapy in vivo on a murine MPS I model. Eight- to 10 week-old mice were injected with increasing lentiviral doses via the tail vein and analyzed 1 month after treatment. A single injection of lentiviral-IDUA vector resulted in transgene expression in several murine tissues, with the highest level reached in liver and spleen. Expression of 1% normal activity was sufficient in treated animals to normalize the GAG level in urine, liver, and spleen and was able to reduce the GAG level in kidney, heart, and lung. Polymerase chain reaction assays showed integration of the viral genome only in liver and spleen of treated animals, suggesting that the correction of the pathology in other tissues was due to secretion into the plasma by liver and spleen and uptake of corrective enzyme by distant tissues. Long-term (6 months) analysis showed the presence of enzyme-specific antibodies and the loss of enzyme activity and vector sequence in the target tissue, suggesting that the transgene-specific immune response interfered with long-term therapeutic correction and led to clearance of transduced cells. In conclusion, our results show the promising potential and the limitations of lentiviral-IDUA vector-mediated gene therapy in an in vivo model.
ASJC Scopus subject areas