Background and aim: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal inherited syndrome characterized by hundreds to thousands colorectal adenomatous polyps with oncological transformation lifetime risk of 100%. FAP is mainly associated with mutations in APC (autosomal dominant inheritance) or MUTYH (autosomal recessive inheritance) genes. Affected individuals are at increased risk of developing extra-intestinal tumors. Lifetime risk of developing thyroid carcinoma has been described in previous reports of about 2-12%, mainly in females, and the mean age is below 30 yr. About 95% of cancers are papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), mostly multifocal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of PTC among our series of FAP patients and to assess the type of gene mutation associated with the disease. Methods: Fifty-four subjects from 36 FAP families were selected (29 females/25 males) and the mean age (±SD) at diagnosis was 28.8±10.8 yr. All patients underwent blood examination for thyroid hormones and antibodies, germline mutational analysis of APC and/or MUTYH genes, thyroid ultrasound, and endocrinological evaluation. Results: In 13/54 (24.1 %) subjects, an eumetabolic thyroid disease was found: plurinodular disease in 7/54 (13.0%); single nodule in 4/54 (7.4%); in 2/54 patients (3.7%), we found a malignant nodule characterized after total thyroidectomy as a classical PTC. Both patients were female and showed a classic FAP phenotype. Mutational analysis revealed in the first patient the APC germline mutation 3183-87del ACAAA and in the second patient the del9-10 (del9080dup11) novel APC variant; the first mutation has been already reported in association with PTC; to our knowledge the second mutation has never been previously reported in association with FAP. Conclusions: In the population examined, the estimated prevalence of thyroid malignant diseases was 3.7%. In both patients, the identified APC gene pathogenetic variants mapped within the 5′ region of the gene, previously reported as a PTC-associated mutational hot spot. Both patients had classic FAP phenotype and genetic analysis revealed two pathogenetic APC mutations: c.3183-87delACAAA, a recurrent pathogenetic variant and del9-10 (del9080dup11), a novel, not previously described genomic rearrangement. In agreement with previous studies, the morpho-functional surveillance of thyroid in FAP series should be recommended. A better insight into the overall genotype-phenotype correlation of APC gene mutations would be helpful for the identification of at-risk individuals.
- Thyroid cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism