Genetic analysis of microglandular adenosis and acinic cell carcinomas of the breast provides evidence for the existence of a low-grade triple-negative breast neoplasia family

Felipe C Geyer, Samuel H Berman, Caterina Marchiò, Kathleen A Burke, Elena Guerini-Rocco, Salvatore Piscuoglio, Charlotte Ky Ng, Fresia Pareja, Hannah Y Wen, Zoltan Hodi, Stuart J Schnitt, Emad A Rakha, Ian O Ellis, Larry Norton, Britta Weigelt, Jorge S Reis-Filho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Acinic cell carcinoma is an indolent form of invasive breast cancer, whereas microglandular adenosis has been shown to be a neoplastic proliferation. Both entities display a triple-negative phenotype, and may give rise to and display somatic genomic alterations typical of high-grade triple-negative breast cancers. Here we report on a comparison of previously published data on eight carcinoma-associated microglandular adenosis and eight acinic cell carcinomas subjected to targeted massively parallel sequencing targeting all exons of 236 genes recurrently mutated in breast cancer and/or DNA repair-related. Somatic mutations, insertions/ deletions, and copy number alterations were detected using state-of-the-art bioinformatic algorithms. All cases were of triple-negative phenotype. A median of 4.5 (1-13) and 4.0 (1-7) non-synonymous somatic mutations per carcinoma-associated microglandular adenosis and acinic cell carcinoma were identified, respectively. TP53 was the sole highly recurrently mutated gene (75% in microglandular adenosis versus 88% in acinic cell carcinomas), and TP53 mutations were consistently coupled with loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type allele. Additional somatic mutations shared by both groups included those in BRCA1, PIK3CA, and INPP4B. Recurrent (n=2) somatic mutations restricted to microglandular adenosis or acinic cell carcinomas included those affecting PTEN and MED12 or ERBB4, respectively. No significant differences in the repertoire of somatic mutations were detected between microglandular adenosis and acinic cell carcinomas, and between this group of lesions and 77 triple-negative carcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Microglandular adenosis and acinic cell carcinomas, however, were genetically distinct from estrogen receptor-positive and/or HER2-positive breast cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Our findings support the contention that microglandular adenosis and acinic cell carcinoma are part of the same spectrum of lesions harboring frequent TP53 somatic mutations, and likely represent low-grade forms of triple-negative disease with no/minimal metastatic potential, of which a subset has the potential to progress to high-grade triple-negative breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-84
Number of pages16
JournalModern Pathology
Volume30
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017

Keywords

  • BRCA1 Protein/genetics
  • Breast/pathology
  • Breast Neoplasms/genetics
  • Carcinoma, Acinar Cell/genetics
  • Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics
  • Female
  • Fibrocystic Breast Disease/genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Mediator Complex/genetics
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases/genetics
  • Receptor, ErbB-4/genetics
  • Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/genetics

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