Genetic and Acquired Heterotopic Ossification: A Translational Tale of Mice and Men

Serena Cappato, Riccardo Gamberale, Renata Bocciardi, Silvia Brunelli

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Heterotopic ossification is defined as an aberrant formation of bone in extraskeletal soft tissue, for which both genetic and acquired conditions are known. This pathologic process may occur in many different sites such as the skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle and fibrous tissue adjacent to joints, ligaments, walls of blood vessels, mesentery and other. The clinical spectrum of this disorder is wide: lesions may range from small foci of ossification to massive deposits of bone throughout the body, typical of the progressive genetically determined conditions such as fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, to mention one of the most severe and disabling forms. The ectopic bone formation may be regarded as a failed tissue repair process in response to a variety of triggers and evolving towards bone formation through a multistage differentiation program, with several steps common to different clinical presentations and distinctive features. In this review, we aim at providing a comprehensive view of the genetic and acquired heterotopic ossification disorders by detailing the clinical and molecular features underlying the different human conditions in comparison with the corresponding, currently available mouse models.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 14 2020


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