Crohn's disease is a complex disease in which genome, microbiome, and environment interact to produce the immunological background of the disease. Disease in childhood is more extensive and characterized by a rapid progression, leading to severe repercussions in the course of the disorder. Several genetic variations have been associated with an increased risk of developing the disease and most of these are also implicated in other autoimmune disorders. The gut has many tiers of defense against incursion by luminal microbes, including the epithelial barrier and the innate and adaptive immune responses. Moreover, recent evidence shows that bacterial and viral infections, as well as inflammasome genes and genes involved in the autophagy process, are implicated in Crohn's disease pathogenesis. The aim of this review is to establish how much the diagnostic system can improve, thus increasing the success of Crohn's disease diagnosis. The major expectation for the near future is to be able to anticipate the possible consequences of the disease already in childhood, thus preventing associated complications, and to choose the best treatment for each patient.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)