Purpose: Deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE) is a frequent complication in the course of cancer, particularly in brain tumors. We investigated genetic and plasma factors possibly associated with risk of DVT/PE in patients with high-grade glioma. Experimental Design: In a case-control study, we studied polymorphisms of the genes coding for factor II (G20210A), factor V (G1691A), methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (C6777), tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA; insertion/deletion), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; 4G/5G), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; C936T). We also measured plasma levels of D-dimer, lipoprotein (lp) (a), homocysteine, VEGF, tPA, and PAI-1, comparing healthy control patients with patients with glioma or with patients with neurological nonneoplastic disease (multiple sclerosis). Results: Genotype frequencies of polymorphisms analyzed were similar in patients with glioma and in healthy matched population. D-dimer, lp (a), homocysteine, VEGF, tPA, and PAI-1 plasma levels were significantly higher in patients with glioma than in healthy controls, whereas patients having neurological nonneoplastic disease had plasma values of these molecules not significantly different from healthy controls. VEGF, tPA, and PAI-1 were also found at high-plasma levels in patients carrying genotypes that, in healthy controls, were associated with "low-producing" phenotypes. Conclusions: Genetic risk factors alone did not explain the high incidence of DVT/PE observed in patients with glioma. Higher plasma levels of molecules influencing the coagulation pathways indicate that the tumor itself might confer an increased risk of DVT/PE; thus, D-dimer, homocysteine, lp (a), VEGF, tPA, and PAI-1 look like good candidates to be evaluated as DVT/PE prognostic factors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research