Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates (n = 248) collected during a 1-year period in Tuscany, Italy, were genotyped for the katG463 and gyrA95 polymorphisms and by standard spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays. Most of the isolates (n = 212; 85.5%) belonged to genotypic groups 2 and 3, which included most isolates from Italian-born patients. The remaining isolates were genotypic group 1 organisms, which were prevalent among foreign-born patients (29 of 36; 80.6%). Spoligotype analysis detected 116 unique patterns and 34 clusters including 166 isolates. The combination of spoligotyping and IS6110 RFLP analyses yielded 28 distinct clusters including 65 identical isolates (26.2%) - 22 clusters with 2 isolates, 4 clusters with 3 isolates, 1 cluster with 4 isolates, and 1 cluster with 5 isolates - thus proving a low transmission rate in the community. Predominant spoligotypes representing 50% of clustered isolates were found in six clusters that included widespread type ST53 (clade T1) with 29 isolates (11.7% of total isolates); types ST50 and ST47 (Haarlem family) with 18 isolates (7.3%) and 8 isolates (3.2%), respectively; type ST42 (Latino-American and Mediterranean clade) with 13 isolates (5.2%); new type ST1737 (named "Tuscany") with 8 isolates (3.2%); and type ST1 (W-Beijing family) with 7 isolates (2.8%). Other spoligotype families, such as the Mycobacterium africanum, East African-Indian (EAI2/Manila), and central Asia 1 (CAS1/Delhi) families (all including organisms of genotypic group 1) and the Cameroun family (genotypic group 2), were detected especially among immigrant patients. The occurrence of genotypes originally found in distant geographic areas with a high prevalence of tuberculosis may represent a hallmark for changes in the dynamics of transmission of tuberculosis in the region in the near future.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)