Genetic diversity of HIV type 1 in Montenegro

Massimo Ciccozzi, Danijela Vujošević, Alessandra Lo Presti, Boban Mugoša, Zoran Vratnica, Alessia Lai, Dragan Laušević, Nenad Drašković, Aleksandra Marjanovic, Eleonora Cella, Maria M. Santoro, Claudia Alteri, Lavinia Fabeni, Marco Ciotti, Gianguglielmo Zehender

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is characterized by high genetic variability due to its high replication rate and the lack of proofreading activity of the reverse transcriptase enzyme. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis performed on numerous isolates from all over the world, HIV-1 is subdivided into types, subtypes, subsubtypes, circulating recombinant forms, and unique recombinant forms. No data are currently available about the circulation of HIV-1 types in Montenegro. Here, we describe the genetic variability of HIV-1 strains identified in plasma samples of patients from Montenegro. Phylogenetic analysis on 32 HIV-1 sequences was carried out. The prevalent circulating HIV-1 subtype is B. The strains were interspersed within the tree. Two main clades (I and II) may suggest independent introductions of HIV-1 subtype B into Montenegro, although other epidemiological evidence will be needed to assume a small number of introductions. No obvious evidence of clustering by residence, age, or sex was found (data not shown). Nelfinavir resistance was found, though lopinavir is the only PI administered. Continuous monitoring of HIV-1-infected individuals is crucial to a better understand of the epidemiology of the B subtype in Montenegro.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)921-924
Number of pages4
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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