Because of its complexity, the list of susceptibility and modifier genes is going to increase and the pharmacology of HF will soon be tailored to genetic epidemiology. Despite the substantial research activity in the field of HF, relatively few coordinated studies have been conducted to assign a precise risk to specific gene polymorphisms. The translation of risk associated with genetic variations and translation of new knowledge into clinical practice will likely progress only when large well-designed studies will be conducted. With HF being one of the conditions of major impact now and destined to grow in the future, cardiologists must never forget to place their scientific and clinical initiatives with the vision of a prospective scenario in which the errors of today could carry serious consequences tomorrow, and investments for research could be negatively influenced by improper design, methodology, and plans for research.
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