According to a rich body of literature, immune cell dysfunctions, both locally and systemically, and an inflammatory environment characterize all forms of endometriosis. Alterations in transcripts and proteins involved in the recruitment of immune cells, in the interaction between cytokines and their receptors, cellular adhesion and apoptosis have been demonstrated in endometriotic lesions. The objective of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the components and mechanisms at the intersection between inflammation and genetics that may constitute vanguard therapeutic approaches in endometriosis. The GWAS technology and pathway-based analysis highlighted the role of the MAPK and the WNT/β-catenin cascades in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. These signaling pathways have been suggested to interfere with the disease establishment via several mechanisms, including apoptosis, migration and angiogenesis. Extracellular vesicle-associated molecules may be not only interesting to explain some aspects of endometriosis progression, but they may also serve as therapeutic regimens per se. Immune/inflammatory dysfunctions have always represented attractive therapeutic targets in endometriosis. These would be even more interesting if genetic evidence supported the involvement of functional pathways at the basis of these alterations. Targeting these dysfunctions through next-generation inhibitors can constitute a therapeutic alternative for endometriosis.
- Extracellular vesicles
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry