Genitourinary syndrome of menopause in breast cancer survivors: Are we facing new and safe hopes?

Nicoletta Biglia, Valentina E. Bounous, Luca G. Sgro, Marta D'Alonzo, Silvia Pecchio, Rossella E. Nappi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Breast cancer survivors (BCSs) often suffer from menopausal symptoms induced by systemic treatments, with a consequent negative effect on quality of life. Since the introduction of aromatase inhibitors as the standard therapy for hormone-dependent tumors, genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) has become a main problem for BCSs. This new terminology refers to the wide range of vaginal and urinary symptoms related to menopause, which can be relieved by estrogen therapy. Unfortunately, systemic hormone therapy is contraindicated for BCSs and also vaginal estrogens at standard dosage might influence the risk of recurrence because they cause a significant increase of circulating estrogens. Nonhormonal vaginal moisturizers or lubricants are the first choice for BCSs but only have limited and short-term efficacy. New strategies of management of GSM are now available, including: (1) low-dose or ultra low-dose vaginal estrogens; (2) oral selective estrogen receptor modulators (ospemifene); (3) androgen therapy; (4) physical treatment with vaginal laser; and (5) psychosocial interventions. In this review we discuss and analyze these different options.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-420
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Breast Cancer
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2015


  • BCS
  • GSM
  • Iatrogenic menopause
  • Treatment
  • Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology


Dive into the research topics of 'Genitourinary syndrome of menopause in breast cancer survivors: Are we facing new and safe hopes?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this