5-Fluorouracil is among the most widely used anticancer drug, but a fraction of treated patients develop severe toxicity, with potentially lethal injuries. The predictive power of the available pretreatment assays, used to identify patients at risk of severe toxicity, needs improvements. This study aimed to correlate a phenotypic marker of 5-fluorouracil metabolism (the individual degradation rate of 5-fluorouracil—5-FUDR) with 15 functional polymorphisms in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene (DPYD). Single SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) analysis revealed that the SNPs rs1801160, rs1801265, rs2297595 and rs3918290 (splice site variant IVS14+1G>A) were significantly associated with a decreased value of 5-FUDR, and the rs3918290 causing the larger decrease. Multi-SNP analysis showed that a three-SNP haplotype (Hap7) involving rs1801160, rs1801265 and rs2297595 causes a marked decrease in 5-FUDR, comparable to that caused by the splice site variant rs3918290, which is the main pharmacogenetic marker associated with severe fluorouracil toxicity. The similar effect played by Hap7 and by the splice site variant rs3918290 upon individual 5-FUDR suggests that Hap7 could also represent a similar determinant of fluorouracil toxicity. Haplotype assessment could improve the predictive value of DPYD genetic markers aimed at the pre-emptive identification of patients at risk of severe 5-fluorouracil toxicity.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 28 July 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.56.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine