Genotypic analysis of the protease and reverse transcriptase of non-B HIV type 1 clinical isolates from naïve and treated subjects

Laura Monno, Luigia Scudeller, Gaetano Brindicci, Annalisa Saracino, Grazia Punzi, Antonio Chirianni, Antonella Lagioia, Nicoletta Ladisa, Sergio Lo Caputo, Gioacchino Angarano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


One hundred and ninety-two pol sequences of drug-naïve and drug-experienced subjects infected with non-B HIV-1 subtypes were analyzed to identify treatment-related amino acid changes which might be relevant for drug-resistance and possibly not included in the accepted mutation list for the B subtype. The correspondence analysis identified non-B-specific and subtype-specific polymorphisms which should not be mistaken for mutations. Multiple χ2 were performed to detect the differences between naïve vs treated subjects and between different subtypes. To verify the contribution of each single mutation to the resistance levels as predicted by the Virtual Phenotype™-LM, simple univariate linear regression was used with fold resistance as a dependent variable and individual mutations as predictors. Commonly accepted protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) positions along with mutants at RT positions 118 and 90 were significantly associated with treatment. Two unusual PR (K14R and I66F) and five RT positions (E28K, S68G, H221Y, L228R/H and P294A) were also associated with treatment (p <0.01). Only minimal variations were observed with respect to commonly accepted amino acid changes. All amino acid changes correlated with treatment influenced the resistance levels to each single drug. Our findings demonstrate that there are no substantial differences regarding known resistance-associated mutations and the newly emergent substitutions between non-B and B subtype strains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-126
Number of pages9
JournalAntiviral Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2009


  • HIV-1
  • Non-B subtypes
  • Resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Pharmacology


Dive into the research topics of 'Genotypic analysis of the protease and reverse transcriptase of non-B HIV type 1 clinical isolates from naïve and treated subjects'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this