The imbalance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis, which naturally accompanies bone marrow senescence, may contribute to the development of bone-associated diseases, like osteoporosis. In the present study, using primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) isolated from trabecular bone, we assessed the possible effect of GH on hMSC differentiation potential into adipocytes. GH (5 ng/ml) significantly inhibited the lipid accumulation in hMSCs cultured for 14 days in lipogenic medium. GH decreased the expression of the adipogenic genes, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and adiponectin (ADN) as well as the expression of two lipogenesis-related enzymes, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and acethylCoA carboxylase (ACACA). In parallel, GH induced an increase in the gene expression and protein levels of osterix (OSX) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). These effects were ascribed to enhanced Wnt signaling as GH significantly reduced Wnt inhibitors, Dickkopf 1 (DKK1) and the secreted frizzled protein 2 (SFRP2), and increased the expression of an activator of Wnt, Wnt3. Accordingly, the expression of β-catenin and its nuclear levels were raised. Wnt involvement in GH anti-adipogenic effect was further confirmed by the silencing of β-catenin. In silenced hMSC, both the inhibitory effect of GH on the expression of the adipogenic genes, ADN and C/EBPα and the lipogenesis enzymes LPL and ACACA, were prevented together with the stimulatory effect of GH on the osteogenic genes OSX and OPG. The present study supports the hypothesis that when GH secretion declines as in aging, the fat in the bone-marrow cavities increases and the osteogenic capacity of the MSC pool is reduced due to a decrease in Wnt signaling. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.